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sketch showing dc power distributed around a building on busbars to a vriety of loads, and with a battery bank. There is an AC/DC charger for the batteries.

What is a DC Power Port? – EMC Explained

Everyone knows what a DC power port is, right? It’s this…

sketch showing an ac/dc adaptor and a piece of equipment with a dc power input - this is classified as a signal port for emc purposes

It’s got DC power on it, and it is a port on the equipment. DC. Power. Port.

Not in the context of EMC I’m afraid. Despite the similar name, the EMC definition for a DC Power Port (from the IEC / EN standards) is very different.

The DC Power Port is unfortunately mis-named. A better term would be “DC Mains Port” to indicate how similar it is in construction and EMC requirements to its counterpart “AC Mains Port”.

In this guide we will refer to it in this guide as a DC power/mains port and look at:

  • The EMC definition of a “DC Power Port”
  • The EMC implications of classifying a port as a “DC Power Port”
  • Examples of a DC Power/Mains Port
  • Examples of NOT a DC Power/Mains Port

Any port that doesn’t meet ALL of the definitions of a DC Power Port is just classed as a Signal Port, albeit one that happens to carry DC power.

Those key parameters are:

Criteria Met?
Local supply in a site / building / infrastructure? ???
Flexible use by different types of equipment? ???
Supply independent from AC mains? ???

 

Definition

The definitions in the Generic EMC standards of EN 61000-6-1 (immunity) and EN 61000-6-3 (emissions) lays out what a DC Power/Mains Port is:

 

EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011, Clause 3.8

“d.c. power network

local electricity supply network in the infrastructure of a certain site or building intended for flexible use by one or more different types of equipment and guaranteeing continuous power supply independently from the conditions of the public mains network

NOTE Connection to a remote local battery is not regarded as a DC power network, if such a link comprises only power supply for a single piece of equipment.”

 

Let’s break out the key terms to understand the definition:

 

“…local electricity supply network in the infrastructure of a certain site or building…”

 

This suggests something wiring that is built into or spreads around a large area. A good example is the way that AC mains wiring is distributed around a building. Imagine this carrying DC instead of AC.

Typical cable lengths are probably around 10m or longer. Longer cables means they can act as antennae for low frequencies (longer wavelength). So we need to be concerned with power supply noise from our equipment on these cables that could radiated from them.

Longer cables will also pick up lower frequency common mode disturbances (conducted RF and surge) and present a larger surface for capacitive coupling of fast transients (EFT).

 

“…for flexible use by one or more different types of equipment…”

 

Use of the word flexible implies ease of use and simple connection to this power distribution system. Perhaps a common power connector (similar in nature to an AC mains plug) is used, or an agreed connector standard.

A DC Power/Mains bus that requires tools and time to connect to (example a fire alarm wired with Mineral Insulated Copper Clad (MICC) or “pyro” cable) might not meet the definition of “flexible” in terms of “ease of connection”. Nevertheless it would be flexible in terms of connection of different types of equipment (sounders, detectors, etc.)

 

“…guaranteeing continuous power supply independently from the conditions of the public mains network…”

 

The likely scenarios here are:

  • A “DC UPS” system where a bank of batteries are kept topped up by an AC mains charger
  • A DC micro-grid system where power is generated from sources like solar power

 

Importantly

1) Any port that doesn’t meet ALL of these definitions is just classed as a Signal Port, albeit one that happens to carry DC power.

2) Any piece of equipment connecting to this DC power supply is classified as a “DC Power Port” regardless of whether it supplies or consumes the power

 

EMC Tests Required for a DC Mains/Power Port

The classification of a port as a DC Power/Mains Port invites extra EMC testing to be applied.

 

Port Length Conducted

Emissions

EN 61000-4-4

EFT

EN 61000-4-6

Conducted RF

EN 61000-4-5

Surge

DC mains/power Any YES YES YES YES
Signal (with DC) <3m NO NO NO NO
Signal (with DC) >3m and <30m NO YES YES NO
Signal (with DC) >30m NO YES YES YES

 

Almost inevitably, unless the equipment has been explicitly designed as a DC Mains/Power port, there will likely be EMC test failures.

Conducted emissions invariably fails the limits. Usually the first system component after the input power connector are a series of DC/DC buck converters to change the input voltage down to levels that are needed in the system.

Buck converters suffer from noisy input nodes because of the high dI/dt requirements of the switching transistors. This needs to be mitigated through good quality high frequency decoupling and can cause noise at 20MHz upwards. Common mode chokes in the DC input may be required to mitigate this noise.

At lower frequencies, there will be current draw from the supply at the switching frequency of the DC/DC and at it’s harmonics. Unless low impedance electrolytics and a differential mode filter (usually an inductor in the 2.2uH to 10uH range forming a pi-filter) are used, the emissions from the port will fail the average limits in the 150kHz to 1MHz range.

DC Mains/Power also requires the addition of the surge test in both line-to-line (DC+ to DC-) and line-to-earth (DC+ and DC- together relative to Earth) coupling modes.

The line-to-line surge of 500V (commercial/light industrial EM environments) or 1kV (industrial EM environments) with a 2 ohm source impedance is capable of damaging the first switching transistor it comes across on the DC line unless a Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) is employed between DC+ and DC-.

The line-to-earth test with a series impedance of 42 ohms (not the 12 ohms as used for the AC mains port test) tests the insulation of any isolated power supply and depends heavily on how (or indeed if) a Protective Earth connection is made within the system.

 

Examples of A DC Power/Mains Port

The sketch below tries to capture a typical DC Mains/Power port application

sketch showing dc power distributed around a building on busbars to a vriety of loads, and with a battery bank. There is an AC/DC charger for the batteries.

 

Criteria Met?
Local supply in site / building / infrastructure? Yes
Flexible use by different types of equipment? Yes
Supply independent from AC mains Yes

 

Specific examples include:

 

Telecoms

48V distribution around telecoms switching / data centers to power the equipment and to provide low levels of power to handsets in a Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS)

 

Computing Data Centres

Large data centre and cloud computing providers like Facebook, Microsoft, Google, and Amazon are moving away from traditional DC>AC UPS systems and towards DC power distribution (380V, 200V, 48V depending on standards) to servers and other electrical loads.

The efficiency savings from not having to convert from AC power to DC in every load, multiplied by the number of loads makes for significant energy efficiency savings and heat reduction – some of the biggest costs for such facilities.

In addition, the DC to AC conversion loss in the UPS from battery DC voltage to AC voltage is removed. Instead there are just the batteries connected to the DC power bus.

 

Electricity Substations

Battery Tripping Units (BTU) are used to power monitoring and control equipment in electricity substations. The LV AC mains supply to the substation equipment (derived from the HV or MV feed) is considered to be an “auxiliary” supply. Control of the equipment is a requirement even if this power is not present. Common DC voltages are 220V, 110V, 48V, 36V, 24V.

 

DC Micro-Grid

Local power generation from renewable sources like Solar PV might be distributed around a power generating plant or a local area.

 

Emergency Lighting Central Battery Units

There is a requirement in Building Regulations to have fire exit emergency lighting powered separately so that in the event of a power cut the building occupants can find their way out of the building safely.

In smaller buildings this is usually achieved using emergency lighting with independent battery backup. However in larger buildings, a Central Battery Unit is used to provide power (and often control / monitoring functionality) to emergency lights spread throughout the structure.

The combination of data and DC power blurs the lines between a DC mains/power port and a Wired Network port. Both call up conducted emissions tests and similar levels of immunity.

 

Fire Alarm System

DC power is passed to different critical components of the fire alarm system (e.g. smoke / fire detectors, displays, alarm sounders) in a loop system from a central control panel.

sketch showing the connection of fire alarm components to a central panel - emc dc power port example 2

Criteria Met?
Local supply in site / building / infrastructure? Yes
Flexible use by different types of equipment? Yes [1]
Supply independent from AC mains Yes

 

[1] May be difficult to connect to and reconfigure but certainly flexible in terms of variety of equipment that could be connected

Interestingly, the EMC product family standard that deals with fire, security, and social alarms (EN 50130-4) only focuses on emissions from the AC mains port with no mention of DC power outputs. Since other standards address EMC requirements for DC Power Ports, including the Generic EN 61000-6-x series mentioned above, we have a path to bring in these requirements to the EMC Test Plan as part of the EMC Risk Assessment.

If using MICC / pyro cable, whilst the joints are required to be fireproof, there is no requirement for quality of termination for EMC purposes. Reliance on the shielding formed by the outside of the cable is contingent on a low impedance electrical termination which is not necessarily guaranteed.

 

 

 

Examples of NOT DC Power/Mains Ports

AC/DC Power Adaptor

sketch showing an ac/dc adaptor and a piece of equipment with a dc power input - this is classified as a signal port for emc purposes

Criteria Met?
Local supply in site / building / infrastructure? No
Flexible use by different types of equipment? No
Supply independent from AC mains No

 

In this event, the power bus with long cables is the AC mains interface that our AC/DC power supply plugs into (for non-UK readers: that is a UK AC mains plug).

The AC mains has all the EMC characteristics discussed above: long cables that can radiate noise (emissions) or have noise coupled onto them.

One question we get a lot is along the lines of:

“My product is powered from a pre-approved / CE marked power supply, so we don’t need to do any EMC testing on it… right?”

We’ve written a separate article to cover this interesting question.

 

DC power distribution around a typical DIN rail electrical cabinet

sketch showing typical dc power distribution around a DIN rail equipped electrical cabinet - again this would be classed as a signal port

Criteria Met?
Local supply in site / building / infrastructure? No
Flexible use by different types of equipment? Yes
Supply independent from AC mains No

 

In this example, the Load represents the equipment we are interested in. There is the probability of noise coupling onto the DC power cable from other equipment inside this cabinet. For example a large industrial machine would typically have contactors and large Variable Frequency Drives running close by.

If we think this could be the case then we would recommend testing Conducted RF immunity (61000-4-6) and EFT (61000-4-4) regardless of the anticipated maximum length of power supply cable.

This would form part of the EMC Risk Assessment for the equipment, an important part of the decision-making process for what EMC tests to apply. If you’ve not considered EMC Risk Assessments before then get in touch with us and we can help!

 

Power over Ethernet (PoE)

sketch showing an example power over ethernet distribution - these are classed as Wired Network Ports under EN 55032

 

Criteria Met?
Local supply in site / building / infrastructure? Yes
Flexible use by different types of equipment? Yes
Supply independent from AC mains No [1]

 

[1] Depends on the power source for the switch, it could come from a UPS for no-interruption requirements like security or network infrastructure.

Supplying DC power over an Ethernet cable is a thoroughly good idea. High speed data, enough power to run a simple device, all over cables approaching 100m in length? Sounds great!

Each port in a PoE switch will have power provided from a dedicated isolated power supply. This provides isolation (both in terms of EMC emissions and immunity) between different segments of the PoE network.

Despite the potentially long cables, it still doesn’t quite meet our criteria for a DC power port. However similar EMC requirements for a DC power port are called up by other standards:

  • EN 55032 (emissions of multimedia equipment) calls up a requirement for conducted emissions on wired network ports
  • IEEE 802.3 specifies a voltage isolation between Ethernet cabling and the circuit at each end of 1500Vac. This will often help (but not completely resolve) with the surge requirements
  • The surge test of EN 61000-4-5 is not applied line-to-line as the Ethernet lines are considered to be “symmetrical” in the language of this Basic standard. The tight coupling between the pairs in the cable and floating / isolated nature of the signaling means that coupling onto these cables generating line-to-line surges is considered unlikely. Only line-to-earth surges are applied.

 

Daisy chain of DC powered devices all running from the same bus

sketch showing a daisy chained series of DC powered loads - classified as a signal port

Criteria Met?
Local supply in site / building / infrastructure? No
Flexible use by different types of equipment? Yes
Supply independent from AC mains No

 

 

Conclusion

Hopefully this guide has cleared up some of the confusion about DC power ports in the context of EMC.

If you are unsure about whether your equipment falls into this classification then you can always contact us if you need help.

We generally advise that if you aren’t sure if your equipment could be used in this fashion then you should design and test your product as if they do apply. It is easier to “not-fit” or link out unwanted components than to try and add them in later.

 

Choosing EMC/Radio Standards for CE/UKCA – Generic vs Specific

A short post prompted by a (summarised) request from a customer:

 

We’d like to test to the following standards for our CE/UKCA marking

– EN 61326-1 (Class B emissions, Industrial immunity)
– EN 61000-6-2 (Industrial Level Immunity)
– EN 61000-6-3 (Class B Emissions)

 

This customer is very compliance conscious, as their products end up in all kinds of harsh and hazardous environments where they are protecting the health and safety (and lives in many cases) of their customers.

As such, it is understandable that they want to “throw the kitchen sink” at the EMC performance. Selecting Class B emissions and industrial immunity is a great way of demonstrating the robustness of your product in a wide range of electromagnetic environments.

So, why not quote all of the standards on the Declaration of Conformity (DoC)?

 

CE and UKCA

This article was originally written with CE in mind. It also applies to UKCA, just replace “Harmonised” with “Designated” as far as the standards go and you’ll be fine.

 

Guidance is Available

Thankfully the European Commission has published guidance on selecting Harmonised EMC and Radio standards for assessing the product to.

In each of these standards, a primacy or order of application, is given to the Harmonised Standards.

 

Guide for the EMCD (Directive 2014/30/EU)

4.3.2.2 Relevant harmonised standards

The selection of the relevant harmonised standards is the responsibility of the manufacturer.
When the manufacturer chooses to apply harmonised standards he shall select them in the following precedence order:

– Product-specific standards (if available)
– Product family standards (if available)
– Generic standards

Product-specific (family) standards are those written by ESO’s taking into account the environment, operating and loading conditions of the equipment and are considered the best to demonstrate to compliance to the Directive.

 

An example of a product specific standard would be EN 61326-2-6Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use – EMC requirements – Part 2-6: Particular requirements – In vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical equipment (IEC 61326-2-6:2012)”

These product specific standards often refer back to the root family standard, EN 61326-1 in this case.

Only if the manufacturer’s equipment does not fall into a product standard should the generic standards be applied.

 

Guide to the Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU

5.2 Generic harmonised standards vs product specific harmonised standard

A manufacturer which has the intention to apply a harmonised standard for the conformity assessment of its products, has to apply in priority the product specific harmonised standard and only if this one is not available, the generic one, in order to benefit of presumption of conformity with the essential requirements of the RED.

 

Applying Multiple Standards

There are cases where applying several different Harmonised Standards could be the correct thing to do.

For example, if the equipment is a piece of measurement equipment that incorporates a lot of IT functionality (networking, data storage, PC control) then the manufacturer could decide to assess against EN 61326-1 for laboratory equipment and against EN 55032 for IT equipment. Both standards would appear in the test report and on the DoC.

 

Check Annex ZZ

One of the commonly overlooked Annexes (Annecies? Annecii?) is this one at the start of the standard. This details what Essential Requirements from the Directive are being covered by the standard.

Important: not all standards cover all Essential Requirements. You must check Annex ZZ carefully against them.

If you end up needing to apply more than one Harmonised Standard to a product to cover all of the Essential Requirements then you should state this on your Declaration of Conformity.

 

Presumption of Conformity

Remember that using Harmonised Standards (or Designated Standards for UKCA) gives you a “Presumption of Conformity” without further requirement to demonstrate compliance with the relevant directives/laws.

As this interesting piece on kan.de notes:

 

“Ultimately, the presumption of conformity is no more than a reversal of the burden of proof. This means that a product complying with the relevant [harmonised] standards may be challenged, for example by the market surveillance authority, only if actual evidence can be produced that the manufacturer has violated the requirements of the directives.”

 

Annex ZZ of a Harmonised Standard is your friend when it comes to understanding this link between the standards and the directives.

 

When the DoC Doesn’t Quite Cover It

This example of EN 61326-1 illustrates one of the problems of applying a Harmonised Standard that has multiple levels within it.

In this case, the EMC performance of equipment complying with EN 61326-1 could fall into one of six distinct categories.

Emissions

  • Class A (industrial)
  • Class B (domestic)

Immunity

  • Controlled (shielded and filtered environment)
  • Basic (domestic/commercial)
  • Industrial (heavy machinery)

On the face of it, a product tested to Class A / Controlled (poor EMC performance) can’t be distinguished from one that has passsed Class B/Industrial limits (excellent EMC performance).

What to do?

The way I suggest overcoming this and informing the end user a little more clearly about the performance of the product is to explicitly state in the DoC what levels the product was assessed against during any testing.

Example:

 

This equipment was assessed against the following Harmonised Standards:

 

– EN 61326-1:2013Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use – EMC requirements – Part 1: General requirements” (Class B emissions, Industrial Immunity)

 

I hope you enjoyed this short dive into standards land. It’s a nice place to visit but you wouldn’t want to live there!

Speak soon,

James

 

ukca mark

Brexit & UKCA Mark Updates

Because of the United Kingdom leaving the EU, the CE Mark will no longer be recognised as demonstrating conformity with UK legislation.

Instead the CE Mark will be replaced by the UKCA mark (UK Conformity Assessed) which will be required to sell your products in the UK. This mark can coexist with the CE mark on the same label.

The transition period starts this coming January 2021 and UKCA marks become mandatory for the UK on 1 Jan 2022.

Whilst it sounds like a year in enough time to get everything in order think back to university and how much time you had to finish your dissertation – am I right? Start sooner rather than later, especially if you have multiple products.

unit 3 compliance ce mark to ukca mark transition

This applies to goods sold (“placed on the market” to use the correct term) in England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland will still require CE marking due to the Irish border.

 

How can we help?

  • Preparation of UK Declaration of Conformity
  • Updating your Technical Documentation to meet the new requirements
  • EMC or safety testing to meet the technical standards required

 

Action Stations for UKCA

You will need to create a new “UK Declaration of Conformity” similar to the EU Declaration of Conformity (which you will still need for CE marking). Contact me if you need a template. If you’ve been a customer and we’ve performed CE marking testing for you then we’ll be sending out UK DoC templates for your products before the end of this year.

The EU Technical Documentation that I’m sure you keep up to date for all your products will need an additional section with references to the UK Statutory Instruments (equivalent to the Directives) and Designated Standards. Let me know if you need some help with this.

Add the UKCA mark to your product label. You can find image files on the gov.uk website. It must be at least 5mm high.

It can be applied as a temporary label until 1 January 2023 after which it must be “permanently attached” in the same fashion as you currently apply the CE mark.

The product, or documentation where this is not possible, must have the manufacturer’s name and UK address shown. If the manufacturer is outside the UK, this must be the importer’s address.

 

UK Manufacturers Selling to EU

You are now a “3rd country” and will need an EU Sales Office (assuming you don’t already have one) whose address and contact details will need to go on the EU Declaration of Conformity. Various companies offer an “EU Authorised Representative Service” which can be found with a little searching.

If you use a UK based Notified Body, they will probably have already been in touch to discuss what is happening with your compliance certification. If not, get in touch with them sharpish and ask about your compliance status.

 

Key Dates

1st January 2021

UKCA becomes valid and can be placed on electrical / electronic products to demonstrate conformity with UK legislation.

CE mark enters transition period but is still valid for 12 months.

This transition period applies if you currently self declare CE compliance using an EU Declaration of Conformity (the vast majority of products do this).

 

1st January 2022

CE mark ceases to be valid in the UK.

UKCA mark becomes mandatory.

 

Legal Eagles

The EU directives relating to CE marking are already UK law. SI 2019 No. 696 will modify the below SIs (and more) to add UKCA marking and change the terminology. All compliance documentation must refer to these Statutory Instruments instead of the EU Directives.

Notified Bodies become Approved Bodies.

Harmonised Standards become Designated Standards and use the BS prefix (e.g. BS EN, BS ETSI EN). No list of Designated Standards is available yet, this is likely going to be published around 1 Jan 2021 where the list gets transposed from existing standards.

Edit: List of Designated Standards is now available on the gov.uk website

Most standards change at a slow pace so we’ll have to wait and see how quickly changes to the IEC, CENELEC and ETSI standards filter through to the UK standards list. Certainly no massive changes in technical requirements will happen overnight.

 

References

Guidance: Placing manufactured goods on the market in Great Britain from 1 January 2021 (Gov.uk)

Guidance: Guidance Using the UKCA mark from 1 January 2021 (Gov.uk)

UKCA information from the clever chaps over at Conformance.co.uk