Here is an interesting problem I had working on piece of industrial equipment. The customer had some conducted emissions failures at another EMC lab and needed some help resolving them.
The lessons from fixing this problem was that the first thought is not always the correct one, and that sometimes, all you need is a bit of green-and-yellow earth wire!
A block diagram of the system is shown below with the major components shaded.
An industrial power supply feeds power to the controller (a custom PCB connected to a Raspberry Pi) and to the power measurement board (measures the power consumed by the load).
Conducted emissions on both the Ethernet port and the AC mains port on the power measurement board were both dominated by a low frequency hump around 700kHz.
Notice how the shape or profile of the emissions is almost identical. To my mind, this points towards a single component in the system causing the same noise to be seen everywhere.
The first thing I wanted to do was to simplify the test setup as much as possible. I replaced the industrial power supply (often designed for Class A emissions performance) with my trusty Thandar TS3022S adjustable linear bench supply.
The idea here was to eliminate the industrial power supply from my inquiries.
Wow, what a big difference!
So the conclusion here is that the industrial power supply DC output is very noisy, that this noise is propagating through the system, and manifesting as conducted emissions on the outputs via a variety of coupling paths.
Differential Mode Filtering
Because conducted emissions noise in this lower frequency range tends to be differential in nature (+ve relative to -ve), my first thought was to implement a differential mode filter on the output of the power supply.
I’ve got a little filter prototype board that I use in situations like this. This pi filter was made up from two Panasonic FC series 470uF, 25V on either side of a Wurth 33uH iron powder inductor.
Unfortunately it did nothing to the emissions!
Could it be Common Mode?
This sounds like a obvious question to ask in hindsight. Most EMC problems are common mode in nature, I’m just used to thinking about LF conducted emissions as a differential mode problem.
Let’s try a common mode mains filter on the output of the power supply to see if this is indeed the case.
That’s much better! It looks like the problem was common mode noise after all.
This Time It Was Actually A Good Idea…
Common mode noise in this instance is current on both the DC output lines together. But, as I point out in one of my talks, current flows in a loop and always returns to the source. So where is this common mode current returning to? What is it’s reference?
Our common mode emissions measurements are being made in relation to the metalwork of our screened room test setup which is connected to the AC mains Protective Earth (PE).
The AC mains line to each LISN contains a PE connection and, inside the LISN, this is connected directly to the floor of the chamber.
Logically then, connecting the DC negative to the PE on the power supply will provide a shorter path for this common mode noise from the power supply.
Will this have the desired effect on emissions?
Yes. Yes it does.
Ooooooh, bloomin’ common mode noise. Not just for the higher frequencies but lower ones too!
This was a fun half day project fixing this particular problem. Much nicer to be able to recommend a low cost cable assembly than £$€ 20 worth of filter block.
If you’ve got any EMC problems then give me a call, I’d be happy to help.