ESD Latch Up Behaviour in Diodes Inc. Power Switch Parts

A new customer came to me with their product that was having problems during testing at another laboratory. There were radiated emissions problems (mostly solved with improvements to the ground plane scheme on the PCB) and a very interesting (and challenging) ESD problem which I’ll cover in this blog.

Here was the device exhibiting the problem, a Diodes Inc AP22802AW5-7 “power distribution load switch”. Input VBAT from a stick of AA batteries, SW_PWR from a rotary switch, and output to the rest of the circuit.

Problem outline

The ESD problem was described by the customer:

The EUT stopped working when 4kV contact discharges were applied on discharge point shown. I removed the batteries and I put them [in] again and there was not any response from the sample (no otuput and the green LED remained OFF).

[A second sample] was then tested with the same result, although this time not on the first discharge

Upon inspection both devices had failed due to the load switch (AP22802AW5-7Diodes), with one failing open and one failing short and both becoming very warm.

ESD diode placed on input and output of load switch (with no effect)

ESD diodes placed on all [discharge points] (with no effect)

ESD diode places on VCC close to pullup resistors for [discharge points] with no effect

First thing first was to get the product set up on the ESD table (with a bit of added blur to protect the innocent).

It was very easy to re-create the problem observed at the original test lab with the second contact discharge to the EUT exposed contact point causing the unit to shut down.

In each case, the power switch was failing low resistance from IN to GND. The initial theory was that the device was being damaged by the high voltage punching through the silicon layers leaving a conductive path.


Eliminate the possible

I made a series of experiments to determine the coupling path into the problematic device. Working on the principle that, because of the 15cm distance between discharge point and problem device, that conduction might have been the problem.

  • Capacitors on Vin and EN
  • plus disconnect EN line
  • plus ferrite beads and capacitors on Vin, Vout and EN
  • plus local TVS diodes on pins of device
  • plus ferrite beads in series with [EUT input] lines

Whilst none of these experiments were successful they certainly helped eliminate conduction as the coupling path.

Because of the very high frequency content of the ESD pulse, capacitive coupling is likely going to be the dominant coupling method. Whilst it could couple into the device directly, there was more opportunity for the pulse to couple into the traces connected to the device first. Filtering the inputs eliminates two coupling possibilities


Change of sample

The PCB was starting to get a bit tired from the repeated hot air SMT de-soldering and re-soldering so I swapped to another supplied sample. To be able to operate the unit out of the casing I swapped to a linear DC bench supply instead of the AA batteries.

This proved to be an interesting mode as it allowed me to kill the power quickly. The next set of experiments were in an attempt to reduce the effect of capacitive coupling to the problem device.

  • Improved ground stitching / connection
  • Changing supply voltage
  • Indirect HCP discharge – not to EUT but to the Horizontal Coupling Plane albeit with a vertical ESD gun to increase capacitive coupling to EUT.
  • Reduction of coupling into Vin terminal by removing components and copper
  • Addition of copper foil shield over the top of the device


Failure mode discovery

Setting the current limit on the DC supply to a fairly low value (about 20% higher than nominal current draw) was a good idea.

When applying the ESD strikes the supply went into foldback as the EUT power input went low resistance. I discovered that quickly turning off the power and then turning it back on effectively reset the failure mode of the device. This proved to be repeatable over several discharges: zap – foldback – power cycle – EUT OK.

What silicon component behaves like this? A thyristor.

This is a phenomena known as “latch up” where the parasitic thyristor structure present in the CMOS process fires due to over voltage… such as an ESD strike for instance!

Because the device is only small the power dissipation caused by the battery short circuit current is enough to “pop” the device through overheating.


Out of circuit testing

Whilst it doesn’t get used very often, my Sony Tektronix 370 curve tracer is perfect for testing components like this.

(not mine, picture From CAE Online)

Here’s the VI curve of an undamaged device. It’s a bipolar voltage between VIN and GND. On the left of centre is the standard forward biased body diode. On the right is the reverse biased breakdown of around 8V.

Now for a damaged device. In this case the current changes quickly for a small applied voltage and there is no non-linear characteristic. Essentially, a short circuit.

Turning up the maximum voltage that the curve tracer can apply and dialling down the series impedance allowed me to simulate the over voltage fault condition and create a latch up condition. This latch up wasn’t permanent due to the bipolar sine wave nature of the curve tracer applied voltage.

However turning up the voltage enough to cause excess power dissipation inside the device did result in the same failure mode using the curve tracer.



I have never encountered a device that is this unusually sensitive to ESD events before. A nearby 2kV discharge on the PCB top layer ground plane was enough to cause the latch up condition.

I noted in the report to the customer that this device had been changed to “not recommend for new designs” by Diodes Inc. I wonder if they identified this condition in the device and withdrew it for that reason.

The customer resolved the issue by replacing the device with a different part and we all lived happily ever after.

The end.




10g 16ms half sine shock test profile

EN 60068-2-27 Shock Testing of Anti-Shock Rubber Mounts

We’ve been vibration and shock testing of some heavy equipment designed for the construction environment. This is one of the toughest environments for product environmental testing. It’s wet, it’s dusty, it gets hot and cold… sometimes all at the same time! Not only that but it’s a very physical environment where rough treatment is the norm.

This customer is well versed in the art of protecting their equipment from such conditions using a robust frame with the key part of the product mounted on beefy rubber shock mounts.

This slow motion footage of captured of the unit undergoing shock testing really shows you just how useful these parts are.

Test was being performed to EN 60068-2-27, 10g shocks with a 16ms half sine profile. There is significant pulse pre- and post-loading as the piezolectronic accelerometer I use has a pretty poor low frequency response and this seems to help.

10g 16ms half sine shock test profile

The use of these anti shock mounts isn’t without issue. In this case, the springiness/stiffness of the anti shock mount combined with the mass of the equipment leads to a resonance at around 25Hz with quite large displacement of the main equipment mass.

The losses in the anti shock mounts causes a damping effect leading to a softer, wider resonance. The equivalent of resistance in an LC resonator causing a reduction in the Q of the circuit.

Compared to a much sharper resonance (caused by a different physical structure) the overall gain is much lower. The tradeoff is selecting a stiffer mount to damp the resonances but at the expense of transmitting more force through to the unit under protection.

25Hz soft resonance vs other sharper resonance



TWITL – Vibration Testing Automotive ECU

This Week In The Lab: This fuel injector controller has to withstand significant levels of vibration being mounted inside the engine bay of a high performance racing car.

The manufacturer and end user can’t afford a field failure so we are giving it a literal shakedown.

We are also monitoring the live performance during testing of the ECU to check for failure points or changes in the characteristics of the system

Vibration and shock testing applies to a wide range of products e.g.

  • Anything that is mobile or at risk of knocks and shocks in it’s end application
  • Industrial equipment working in a plant room or similar environment
  • Anything with moving parts; how robust is it? Are there unknown resonant modes lurking?

Get in touch to discuss your vibration testing requirements, we’d be happy to help.




TWITL – Shield Prototyping for Sensitive Detectors

This Week In The Lab: prototyping a shielding can for some sensitive detectors.

The customer’s equipment contained some hazardous gas detectors. Despite a good circuit design, one of these sensors wasn’t too happy when tested at industrial 10V/m levels for radiated RF immunity.

EN 50270:2015 imposes some fairly tight limits on the allowed measurement deviation under immunity conditions (depending on the type of gas).

This “fabri-cobbled” shield proved to be a success and a good proof of concept for the customer to take their design forward.

Despite the less than ideal connection made to the PCB ground plane via the screws it was sufficient to achieve a pass.

copper shield for emc emi


stainless steel camera system

TWITL – Underwater Camera System Industrial EMC Testing

This Week In The Lab: a nicely engineered underwater camera and lighting system. All beautifully turned, milled and TIG welded stainless steel, this thing can go deep and withstand some rough treatment. It was seriously heavy!

stainless steel camera system

The exact installation environment wasn’t known. Since it was expected to be operated in harsh conditions we opted to test to the generic industrial standards EN 61000-6-2 for immunity and EN 61000-6-4 for emissions.

A Simple EMC Fix

Just one fix required: under 10V/m radiated RF immunity testing one of the positioning motors wasn’t responding to it’s control signals. The control from user to motor was all digital so interference on those lines was unlikely.

The fault finding process was relatively straightforward this time.

We quickly figured out that the problem lay with the optical sensor that detected the shaft position and set the end stops for the range of motion. It was being triggered by the noise which caused it to think that the shaft was simultaneously at both of its end positions.

A ferrite core around the cable and a decoupling/filtering capacitor on the sensor input to the controller stopped the noise from affecting performance.