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stainless steel camera system

TWITL – Underwater Camera System Industrial EMC Testing

This Week In The Lab: a nicely engineered underwater camera and lighting system. All beautifully turned, milled and TIG welded stainless steel, this thing can go deep and withstand some rough treatment. It was seriously heavy!

stainless steel camera system

The exact installation environment wasn’t known. Since it was expected to be operated in harsh conditions we opted to test to the generic industrial standards EN 61000-6-2 for immunity and EN 61000-6-4 for emissions.

A Simple EMC Fix

Just one fix required: under 10V/m radiated RF immunity testing one of the positioning motors wasn’t responding to it’s control signals. The control from user to motor was all digital so interference on those lines was unlikely.

The fault finding process was relatively straightforward this time.

We quickly figured out that the problem lay with the optical sensor that detected the shaft position and set the end stops for the range of motion. It was being triggered by the noise which caused it to think that the shaft was simultaneously at both of its end positions.

A ferrite core around the cable and a decoupling/filtering capacitor on the sensor input to the controller stopped the noise from affecting performance.

 

 

ram cage being removed from a 2018 mac mini

Apple Multi-Purpose EMC/EMI Shielding

I’ve always been impressed with Apple’s approach to reducing problems caused by EMC/EMI. Making top of the line technology in a compact case means minimising risk and maximising performance.

Let’s look at an example of well considered EMC design and why it is so useful.

 

Even the EMI shielding solutions are stylish

Because their products are charged at top dollar prices, they can afford to (or can’t afford NOT to) put in features like this.

The RAM on the new Mac Mini (thanks to iFixit for the great photos) has its own removable cage, secured to a PCB level counterpart with screws and, no doubt, a decent fit along the edges. What’s interesting is that this shielding system will have multiple functions.

Let’s discuss these below.

ram cage being removed from a 2018 mac mini

Image from iFixit

 

Why is the screening can so important?

Primarily, it will be used to reduce the EMC radiated emissions from the product. The Apple products I’ve had in my anechoic chamber have all been very quiet and this is why I hold Apple in some regard for their EMC design.

Apple will no doubt have tested their design with multiple RAM vendors to satisfy themselves that the design meets the requirements of international EMC standards.

However, were the user to install some non-Apple verified memory modules then the risk of emissions could increase. One can well imagine that Apple will have considered this in their EMC Risk Assessment.

The secondary benefit is more subtle. Take a look at this image.

inside shot of mac mini case with component analysis

Original image courtesy of iFixit, markup by author

The memory modules and their screening can are highlighted in red. Next to it, highlighted in green, is a smaller board level shielding and a UFL antenna connector. (There are another two connectors out of sight underneath the case)

That’s right, Apple have put the most noisy part of the system (RAM) right next to one of the most noise-sensitive (Wi-Fi). What?

 

Noisy Neighbours.

This is not an uncommon problem, especially when trying to compress so much functionality into such a small space.

The Mac Mini is only 165mm square (that’s 6.5″ if you are watching in black and white). The case includes an integrated mains power supply making proximity between electromagnetically incompatible systems unavoidable.

Modern RAM speeds are fast and the Mac mini is no exception. Everymac lists the latest Core i7 model with a DDR4 memory speed of 2.66GHz. That’s uncomfortably close to the Wi-Fi operating band of 2.4 to 2.5GHz.

The interference spectra of a DRAM interface fundamental frequency is generally quite wide band.

If you turn on any form of Spread Spectrum Clocking (SSC) to reduce the peak energy then it can spread over tens or hundreds of MHz. Either way, that puts the edges of the memory fundamental in band for the 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac interface on the Mac mini.

The harmonic emissions of the memory are also prevalent and it’s easy for these to fall in-band of a wireless interface like Wi-Fi. For instance the second harmonic of 2.66GHz is at 5.32GHz in the channel 64/68 region for 5GHz Wi-Fi. Big problems.

 

Improve Performance? The Can Can.

The effect of in band interference on a Wi-Fi interface can be subtle.

At it’s most gentle, there’s a reduction in both performance and range. The modulation, coding type and channel width of the Wi-Fi sets the robustness of the interface to interference.

At the other end of the scale, whole channels can be blocked out entirely.

This intra-system, or platform level interference is pernicious and can be difficult to isolate and track down. Low noise floor spectrum real-time analysers are extremely useful tools here.

Ultimately, segregating the noise source from the receiver, is the only real solution. This can be achieved by physically separating the aggressor and victim (not possible here) or by shielding.

For some companies, the fallout in performance of a couple of Wi-Fi channels is no big deal.

If you are Apple however, then you can’t afford to have dissatisfied customers complaining about poor Wi-Fi speeds. As always, the EMC budget has to be congruent with the product budget and the desired performance.

 

The Last Line Of Defence

Check out the textured surface between the mounting holes for the lid (blue highlight on the above photo). That will be an EMI seal to ensure good contact between lid and case. Not only a nice touch but an important one.

The Wi-Fi antenna is mounted on the outside of the shield so this circular lid actually screens the antenna further from the noisy internal circuitry of the mini.

Well done Apple. I’d love to see your Wi-Fi range testing results… please?

 

 

LED Lights, the “Bulb Ban” and EMC / Radio Interference

I’ve just published a new article on LinkedIn titled LED Lights, the “Bulb Ban” and Resultant EMC / RFI Issues where I look at potential EMC effects from increased adoption of LED bulbs following recent EU legislation.

If you check it out I’d be interested to hear your thoughts. Please hit comment on the LinkedIn post.